|AREA||84,000 Sq. km.|
Physiography: Right at the top of north eastern india, crowning its six clustered sisters like a protective helmet is Arunachal Pradesh, 'the land of the dawn lit mountains'. Lying between 26 degrees N - 30 degrees N Latitudes, and 91 degrees E - 93 degrees E Longitudes, it is shaped almost like a horse-shoe bordering Bhutan on the west, China on the north, Myanmar on the east and the state of Assam on the south.It is one of the most pristine areas in india. This is the first indian soil to greet the morning sun.
History: The history of Arunachal Pradesh is a virtual treasure trove of myths and fascinating traditions. Local tradition regards the country around Sadiya as the ancient Vidarbha. Ancient Puranas have many references to the region, but the recorded history of this state is available only from the 16th century onwards, when the Ahom kings began to rule Assam. Since 1947, it was a part of the North East Frontier Agency and was later made a Union Territory. Arunachal Pradesh was made a full fledged state on 20th February, 1987.
Geography: The greatest attraction of the state is its dazzling array of flora and fauna, in a habitat that combines glacial terrain, alpine meadows, numerous turbulent streams, roaring rivers, deep gorges, lofty mountains, snow clad peaks and sub-tropical rain forests. There are five major rivers - Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap. The rivers are ideal for rafting and angling, and the rugged terrain is ideal for trekking. The rainfall too, though an almost year-round feature, is uneven. The valleys opening out toward the Assam plains have an annual rainfall as heavy as 400 cm, while the sheltered valleys get between 90 cm and 200 cm.
Tourist Centres: Places of tourist interest in the state include Bomdila, Tawang and the nearby Buddhist monastery, which happens to be the largest in india. Itanagar is famous for its excavated ruins of the historical Ita Fort, and the attractive Gyaker Sinyi or the Ganga Lake. Malinithan and Bhismaknagar are the two important archaeological sites in the state, and Parashuram Kund is a prominent pilgrimage site. Namdapha Wildlife sanctuary in the Changlang district is home to the rare Hoolock gibbon.
Agriculture: 94 percent of the population in the state lives in the rural belt. The people are almost entirely tribal, though today they may not strictly conform to an anthropologist's definition of the word. There are about eighty-two tribes of which fourteen are considered to be the major ones, each with its distinctive dialect. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Arunachal Pradesh. Although a few tribes practice permanent or terrace cultivation, many still adhere to the primitive methods of cultivation. Jhoom, a method in shift cultivation continues to be popular among many tribes. This form of agricultural method has accounted for much of the forest destruction in the inhabited areas. The principal crop of this area is rice, and other important crops include maize, millets, wheat, pulses, potato, sugarcane and oilseeds. The ecological conditions are suitable for horticulture and fruits like pineapple, orange, lemon, papaya, plum, pear, guava, cherries, walnut and peach thrive here.
Minerals and Industries: Arunachal Pradesh is well endowed with an abundant forest cover, mineral, and hydel power resources. Deposits of dolomite, limestone, graphite, quartzite, kyanite, mica, iron and copper are also reported to be found here. Cottage industries include weaving, basketry and carpet-making etc. Small scale industries comprise saw, rice and oil mills, fruit preservation, soap and candle manufacturing units, steel fabrication, wood works . Medium industries are all forest-based, producing veneers, teak chests and plyboards. There are sericulture centres. Important industries are light roofing sheet factory at Pasighat, fruit processing plant at Nigmoi in West Siang district, the cement plant at Tezu, lemon grass oil expeller unit at Tawang and Citronella distillation plant at Pasighat. An electronic unit has been set up at Itanagar for assembling television set, quartz clocks, minimicrophones, radio, etc
Festivals: Major festivals are Losar, Khan, Nyokum, Orankum Garkuyo, Boori-Boot, Dree, Si-Donyi, Mopin, Solung Aran, Tamladu, Sahgken, Ren, Oriah, Loku, Ojiele and Mol.
ITANAGAR The town of Itanagar, just under 400 kms northeast of Guwahati, 750 meters above sea level has been developed as the capital of the state largely because of its convenient location. It is built on a saddle overlooked by two hills, one occupied by the Governor's house and the other by a new Buddhist temple; new lightweight earthquake-proof houses mingle with older traditional structures, a market and offices. Facilities are shared with its twin town, Naharlagun, 10 kms away in the Assam Valley. Itanagar has many places of tourist interest like Itafort, Buddhist Monastery, Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Museum, Emporium, Ganga Lake where boating facilities are available, the Zoo, Craft centre and Polo Park at Naharlagun. The languages spoken are Nishi, Apatani, Adi, Hindi, Assamese and English.
NAMDAPHA NATIONAL PARK Namdapha Tiger Reserve lying in the Changlang District is the only park in the world in which four of the great felines are found viz., the tiger, the leopard, the snow leopard and the clouded leopard. It is also an ideal place for trekking and hiking.
TAWANG Tawang, perched at an height of over 10,000 ft, is world renowed for its 400 year old Buddhist Monastery, one of the biggest monasteries in india and the second largest in the world. Located in a picturesque hilly terrain, criss crossed by a number of mighty rivers with a splendid view of the Himalayan landscapes, Tawang is also suitable for trekking and hiking.
BOMDILA The headquarters of West Kameng District, Bomdila is located at a breathtaking height of 2530 meters, commanding majestic views of the Himalayan landscape and several snowy peaks.The region boasts many apple orchards and Buddhist monastries, 'Gompas'.There is also a crafts centre that produces exquisite carpets of varying designs. Around Bomdila are fine trails for trekking enthusiasts.